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Morpho Butterfly

944cbac8c07fd68 Morpho Butterfly
Morpho Butterfly 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
39ba95a1f27366f Morpho Butterfly
Morpho butterfly may be one of over 80 species of butterflies in the genus Morpho. They areNeotropical butterflies found mostly in South America as well as Mexico and Central America.[1]Morphos range in wingspan from the 7.5 cm (3 inch) M. rhodopteron to the imposing 20 cm (8 inch)Sunset MorphoM. hecuba. The name Morpho, meaning changed or modified, is also an epithet ofAphrodite and Venus.

Contents

  [hide

  • 1 Species
  • 2 Coloration
  • 3 Habitat and biology
  • 4 Habitat
  • 5 Biology
  • 6 Behaviour
  • 7 Life cycle
  • 8 Larvae hostplants
  • 9 Sexual dimorphism
  • 10 Taxonomy and nomenclature
  • 11 Collectors
  • 12 Etymology
  • 13 Photographs
  • 14 Illustrations of Morpho
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
  • 17 Further reading
  • 18 External links

    Species

    Arranged alphabetically.[2]

    [edit]Coloration

    Many Morpho butterflies are colored in metallic, shimmering shades of blue and green. These colors are not a result of pigmentation but are an example of iridescence: the microscopic scales covering the Morpho’s wings reflect incident light repeatedly at successive layers, leading to interference effects that depend on both wavelength and angle of incidence/observance.[3] Thus the colors produced vary with viewing angle, however they are actually surprisingly uniform, perhaps due to the tetrahedral (diamond-like) structural arrangement of the scales or diffraction from overlying cell layers. This structure may be likened to a photonic crystal. The lamellate structure of their wing scales has been studied as a model in the development of fabrics, dye-free paints, and anti-counterfeit technology used in currency.

    The iridescent lamellae are only present on the dorsal side of their wings, leaving the ventral side brown.

    The ventral side is decorated with ocelli or eyespots. In some species, such as M. godarti, the dorsal lamellae are so thin as to allow the ventral ocelli to peek through. While not all Morphos have iridescent coloration, they all have ocelli. In most species only the males are colorful, supporting the theory that the coloration is used for intrasexual communication between males. The lamellae reflect up to 70% of light falling on them, including any ultraviolet (UV). The eyes of Morpho butterflies are thought to be highly sensitive to UV light and therefore the males are able to see each other from great distances. Some South American species are reportedly visible by the human eye up to one kilometre away.

    There also exist a number of other species which are tawny orange or dark brown for instance (M. hecubaM. telemachus). Some species are white principal among these being M. catenarius and M. laertes. An unusual species that is fundamentally white in coloration, but which exhibits a stunning pearlescent purple and teal iridescence when viewed at certain angles is the rare M. sulkowskyi.Some Andean species are small and delicate (M. lympharis). Among the metallic blue Morpho species, M. rhetenor stands out as the most iridescence of all, withM. cypris a close second. Indeed, M. cypris is notable in that specimens that are mounted in entomological collections will exhibit color differences across the wings if they are not ‘set’ perfectly flat.

    There is a nanotechnology concept based on the Morphos wings, that is being used to fight counterfeiters.

    [edit]Habitat and biology

    230px Atlantic Forest Morpho Butterfly

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    Atlantic Forest in Paraguay

    [edit]Habitat

    • Habitat. Primary forests of the Amazon and Atlantic. Also adapted to breed in a wide variety of other forested habitats, for instance the dry deciduous woodlands of Nicaragua and secondary forests.
    • Morphos are found at altitudes between sea level and about 1400m.

    [edit]Biology

    Key points

    • Males spend the mornings patrolling along the courses of forest streams and rivers. They are territorial and will chase any rivals.Morphos typically live alone, excluding in the mating season.
    • The genus Morpho is palatable but some species (such as M. amathonte) are very strong fliers;birds – even species which are specialized for catching butterflies on the wing – find it very hard to catch them.[4] The conspicuous blue coloration shared by most Morpho species may be a case of Müllerian mimicry,[5] or may be ‘pursuit aposematism’.[6]
    • The eyespots on the undersides of the wings of both males and females may be a form of automimicry in which a spot on the body of an animal resembles an eye of a different animal to deceive potential predator or prey species; to draw a predator’s attention away from the most vulnerable body parts; or to appear as an inedible or even dangerous animal.[7]

    [edit]Behaviour

    Morphos have a very distinctive slow, bouncy flight pattern due to the wing area being enormous relative to the body size.

    [edit]Life cycle

    The entire life cycle of the Morpho butterfly, from egg to death, is approximately 115 days.

    220px Blue Morpho Caterpillar Morpho Butterfly

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    caterpillars

    220px 2011 08 08 15 53 56 papillon hunawihr Morpho Butterfly

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    pupae

    The larvae hatch from pale green, dewdrop-like eggs. The caterpillars have reddish-brown bodies with bright lime-green or yellow patches on its back. Its hairs are irritating to human skin, and when disturbed it secretes a fluid that smells like rancid butter. They feed on a variety of plants. The caterpillar will molt five times before entering the pupal stage. The chrysalis is jade-green and emits a repulsive, ultrasonic sound when touched.[8]

    The adults live for about two to three weeks. They feed on the fluids of fermenting fruit, decomposing animals, tree sap, fungi and nutrient rich mud.[9] They are poisonous to predators thanks to toxins they sequestered from plants they fed on as caterpillars.

    The commoner Blue Morphos are reared en masse in commercial breeding programs. The iridescent wings are used in the manufacture of jewelry and as inlay in woodworking. Papered specimens are sold with the abdomen removed to prevent its oily contents from staining the wings. Significant quantities of live specimens are exported as pupae from several neotropical countries for exhibition in butterfly houses. Unfortunately, due to their irregular flight pattern and size, their wings are frequently damaged when in captivity.

    [edit]Larvae hostplants

    Morpho larvae,variously according to species and region feed on LeguminosaeGramineae,Canellaceae , GuttiferaeErythroxylaceaeMyrtaceaeMoraceaeLauraceaeSapindaceae,RhamnaceaeEuphorbiaceaeMusaceaePalmaeMenispermaceaeTiliaceaeBignoniaceae andMenispermaceae.

    According to Penz and DeVries[10]The ancestral diet of larval Satyrinae is Poaceae or othermonocots. Many Morphos have switched to dicots on several occasions during their evolutionary history but basal species have retained the monocot diet.

    [edit]Sexual dimorphism

    The blue Morpho species exhibit sexual dimorphism. In some species (for instance M.adonis, M. eugenia, M. aega, M. cypris, and M. rhetenor) only the males are iridescent blue, the females aredisruptively coloured brown and yellow. In other species (for instance M. anaxibia, M. godarti, M.didius, M. amathonte, and M. deidamia) the females are partially iridescent but less blue than the males.

    [edit]Taxonomy and nomenclature

    A multitude of names attach to the genus Morpho, which has also been variously divided into subgenera. As well as names at species and subspecies level there are hundreds of form, variety, and aberration names. Lamas[11] included all such species within a single genus, and synonymizing many names in a limited number of species. C.M. Penz & P.J. DeVries[12] have provided a phylogenetic analysis with different nomenclature. Other authorities[which?] accept many more species than either.

    [edit]Collectors

    Morpho butterflies, often very expensive, have always been prized by extremely wealthy collectors.Famous collections include those of the London jeweller Dru Drury and the Dutch merchant Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, the Paris diplomat Georges Rousseau-Decelle, the financierWalter Rothschild, the Romanov Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia and the, English and German respectively, businessmenJames John Joicey and Curt Eisner. In earlier years Morphos graced Cabinets of Curiosities ”Kunstkamera” and Royal Cabinets of Natural History notably those of Tsar of Russia Peter the Great, the Austrian empress Maria Theresa and Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden. More famous is Maria Sibylla Merian who was not wealthy.

    The people along the Rio Negro in Brazil once exploited the territorial habits of the Blue Morpho (M. menelaus) by luring them into clearings with bright blue decoys. The collected butterfly wings were used as embellishment for ceremonial masks.Adult Morpho butterflies feed on the juices of fermenting fruit with which they may also be lured. The butterflies wobble in flight and are easy to catch.

     

    [edit]Etymology

    The genus name Morpho comes from the Greek epithet of Aphrodite, goddess of love. Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character of Homer’s Iliad.

     

    [edit]Photographs

    Images of various varieties of morpho butterflies.

    [edit]Illustrations of Morpho

    [edit]See also

    [edit]References

    1. ^ Le Moult (E.) & Réal (P.), 1962–1963. Les Morpho d’Amérique du Sud et Centrale, Editions du cabinet entomologique E. Le Moult, Paris.
    2. ^ Morpho, funet.fi
    3. ^ P. Vukusic, J.R. Sambles, C.R. Lawrence, and R.J. Wootton (1999). “Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales”Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 266 (1427): 1403–11. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0794. 
    4. ^ Young A.M. 1971. Wing colouration and reflectance in Morpho butterflies as related to reproductive behaviour and escape from avian predators. Oecologia 7, 209–222.
    5. ^ Pinheiro, Carlos E. G. (1996) Palatability and escaping ability in Neotropical butterflies: tests with wild kingbirds (Tyrannus melancholicus, Tyrannidae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 59(4): 351–365. HTML abstract
    6. ^ Edmunds M. 1974. Defence in Animals: a survey of anti-predator defences. Harlow, Essex and NY: Longman. ISBN 0-582-44132-3. On p255–256 there is a discussion of ‘pursuit aposematism’:
      “Young suggested that the brilliant blue colours and bobbing flight of Morpho butterflies may induce pursuit… Morpho amathonte is a very fast flier… It is possible that birds that have chased several unsuccessfully may learn not to pursue butterflies of that [type]… In one area, Young found that 80% of less brilliant species of Morpho had beak marks on their wings… but none out of 31 M. amathonte.
      “If brilliant colour was a factor in courtship, then the conflicting selection pressures of sexual selection and predator selection might lead to different results in quite closely related species”.
    7. ^ Stevens, Martin (2005). “The role of eyespots as anti-predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera”. Biological Reviews80 (4): 573–588. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006810PMID 16221330. 
    8. ^ Greg Nussbaum Blue Morpho
    9. ^ Blue Morpho Butterfly (Morpho peleides). Rainforest Alliance. Retrieved on 2011-10-17.
    10. ^ Penz, C.M. & P.J. DeVries (2002) Phylogenetic analysis of Morpho butterflies (Nymphalidae, Morphinae): Implications for classification and natural history. American Museum Novitates, 3374: 1-33.
    11. ^ Lamas, G. (Ed.) 2004 Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea-Papilionoidea. Gainesville, Florida: Association for Tropical Lepidoptera. ISBN 094541728.[1]
    12. ^ Penz, C.M. & P.J. DeVries (2002) Phylogenetic analysis of Morpho butterflies (Nymphalidae, Morphinae): Implications for classification and natural history. American Museum Novitates, 3374: 1-33.

    [edit]Further reading

    • Bilotta, I. 1992. Morfologia comparada da cabec¸a das especies sulbrasileiras de Morphinae (Lepidoptera,Nymphalidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 9: 261–271.
    • Bilotta, I. 1994. Morfologia comparada do torax das especies sulbrasileiras de Morphinae (Lepidoptera,Nymphalidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 11: 691–713.
    • Bilotta, I. 1994. Morfologia comparada do abdome das especies sulbrasileiras de Morphinae(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 11: 737–748.
    • Blandin, P. 2007. The Systematics of the Genus Morpho, Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Hillside Books, Canterbury.
    • Blandin, P. 1988. The genus Morpho, Lepidoptera Nymphalidae. Part 1. The subgenera Iphimedeia and Schwartzia. Sciences Nat,Venette.
    • Blandin, P. 1993. The genus Morpho, Lepidoptera Nymphalidae. Part 2. The subgenera Iphixibia, Cytheritis, Balachowskyna, and Cypritis.Sciences NatVenette.
    • Blandin, P. 2007. The genus Morpho, Lepidoptera Nymphalidae. Part 3. The Subgenera Pessonia, Grasseia and Morpho and Addenda to Parts 1 & 2. Hillside Books, CanterburyBlandin The genus Morpho. Pt. 3.
    • Fruhstorfer, H.1912-1913 6. Familie: Morphidae in Seitz, A. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde (The Macrolepidoptera of the World) Erde 5 : 333-344 (31 May, 1912), : 345-352 (5 June, 1913), : 353-356 (8 July, 1913).[2]
    • Penz, C.M. & P.J. DeVries (2002) Phylogenetic analysis of Morpho butterflies (Nymphalidae, Morphinae): implications for classification and natural history. American Museum Novitates, 3374: 1-33 [3]
    • Takahashi, Mayumi,1973 Notes on the genus Morpho (Lepidoptera: Morphidae) collected in the Santa Marta mountains, Colombia,South America. Tyô to Ga 24(4): 107-111, 26 figs.[general; ecology; behavior]
    • Young, Allen M., 1979 The evolution of eyespots in tropical butterflies in response to feeding on rotting fruit: an hypothesis.Journal of the New York Entomological Society. v. 87, no. 1, p. 66-77.
    • Young, A.M. & A. Muyshondt. 1972. Geographical and ecological expansion in tropical butterflies of the genus Morpho in evolutionary time. Rev. Biol. Trop. 20: 231-264.
    • Young, A.M. 1975. Feeding behavior of Morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Morphinae) in a seasonal tropical environment. Rev. Biol. Trop. 23: 101-132.
  • External Links
  • 14px Wikispecies logo.svg Morpho Butterfly Data related to Morpho at Wikispecies

 


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